Proceedings of First Annual James Reserve Conference, July 5-7, 1997
You can see the schedule
of papers here, and watch this page for the final conference proceedings.
Analyzing Wildlife Movement Corridors in Montana Using GIS (1997 ESRI paper:
Richard Walker, American Wildlands, 40 East Main Street, Suite 2, Bozeman,
MT 59715, Telephone: 406-586-8175 Fax: 406-586-8242 E-mail: email@example.com,
Lance Craighead )
of GIS (1997 SCGIS Paper, Charles Convis, ESRI, 380 New York St, Redlands
CA 92373, tel 909-793-2853, fax: 909-307-3014, email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
A method of evaluating the relative isolation of red-cockaded woodpecker clusters.
(1997 SCGIS paper, Leslie K. Backus*, Reed Bowman, D. L. Leonard and Allison Mains, Archbold Biological
Station, Lake Placid, Florida 33852.) Red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs)
are cooperative breeders dependent on energetically costly cavities excavated
in living pine species. Expansion of RCWs into suitable habitat without
cavities is a rare event. Therefore, to maintain RCW populations, it is
necessary to conserve existing occupied RCW clusters. Within group demographic
and/or environmental stochasticity often results in the extirpation of
the individuals occupying a cluster. Unoccupied clusters are re-occupied
by dispersing RCWs. However, the probability of re-occupation declines
rapidly with time as existing cavities are degraded by other species. Historically,
dispersal to unoccupied clusters from occupied clusters was facilitated
by the open and continuous character of the landscape. Fragmentation and
fire suppression has reduced the probability of successful dispersals from
occupied to unoccupied clusters, especially if the latter are isolated.
Using data from the Avon Park Air Force Range RCW population, in south-central
Florida, we built a model to rank the relative isolation of "focal"
clusters. Using recorded female dispersal distances we generated a dispersal
buffer around each focal cluster. We then calculated the number of and
the distance from each occupied cluster, falling within the buffer, to
each focal cluster. We also ranked the pine corridor between the focal
cluster and each occupied cluster as direct, indirect, circuitous or open
and incorporated this data into our model. Results suggest, that on average,
focal clusters with the lowest isolation coefficient (greatest probability
of emigration) have more occupied clusters within the dispersal radii.
However, the corridor rank between focal and occupied clusters did influence
the isolation coefficient. To ensure the timely re-occupation of unoccupied
clusters managers need to rank clusters according to their isolation and
concentrate management on those having the greatest probability of successful
2. Leslie K. Backus Archbold Biological Station PO Box 2057 Lake Placid,
Florida 33852 e-mail: Chelton@strato.net Phone: 941 465-2571
3. Bowman, R. Leonard, D. Backus. L. Mains, A.
EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHY ON GENETIC VARIATION OF SIX NARROWLY-ENDEMIC FLORIDA SCRUB PLANTS.
(1997 SCGIS paper: Principal Investigator: Dr. Eric Menges, Presenter: Christina M. Casado).
Plant population location, historical habitat range, aggregation and
arrangement of occupied patches were examined as predictors of genetic
variations for six narrowly-endemic plant species. Several rare alleles
were identified and clines in allele frequency were detected. Aggregation
indices based on linear distances were calculated and compared to the distribution
of rare alleles. The degree of population aggregation was positively related
to genetic variation in one of the six species (Nolina brittoniana). Other
spatial analysis consisted of a frequency analysis of point in polygon
intersects, used to identify occurring soil types for each species and
to identify possible historical habitat. Historical patch size inferred
from soil polygons, was positively related to patch size and suitable habitat
within 32 KM for one species (Hypericum cumulicola). Creation of coverages
identifying extant habitat is in progress and will be used with the allele
information in a preserve design model to identify rare plant populations
in need of protection.
Putting Headwaters Back Together ...For All: The Headwaters Forest Stewardship Plan Project
(Robert Parker, The Trees Foundation) Summary: . Putting Headwaters
Back Together ...For All: The Headwaters Stewardship Plan. Work has begun
on this visionary plan for meaningful permanent protection of Headwaters
Forest and the workers who depend on forestland for their livelihood. We
expect that the process of evaluation, analysis and prescription will provide
not only a positive solution to restoring and managing Headwaters Forest
after its acquisition but will also provide a model for conservationists
to use in creating local solutions to other local forest issues.
One hundred and fifty years ago, two million acres of ancient redwood
forest blanketed the California coast. Today, less than three percent of
that great forest remains, of which only a fraction is protected from logging.
The surviving unprotected ancient redwoods are located mostly in scattered
groves. Headwaters Forest is the largest such remnant, containing the six
largest unprotected groves of ancient redwood forest left on Earth. Headwaters
provides a glimpse at the biodiversity that once enriched the coastal forests
of California. The lowland riparian forests, ancient redwood stands, upland
prairies, oak woodlands, and residual old-growth redwood and Douglas fir,
as well as the second-growth stands, are home for a large variety of animals,
plants and microorganisms. Many of the species found in Headwaters Forest
are federally and/or state listed as endangered or threatened, and other
species are candidates for listing.
Headwaters Forest was acquired in 1985 in a hostile takeover of owner
Pacific Lumber Company by corporate raider Charles Hurwitz and his Texas-based
Maxxam corporation. At the time, Hurwitz also owned United Savings Association
of Texas, which failed in 1988. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDIC) and the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) have both filed charges
against Hurwitz for his actions in the failure of the savings and loan.
The bank’s failure cost US taxpayers over $1.5 billion, resulting in one
of the largest S&L bailouts in US history. Hurwitz may have illegally
used these S&L funds to take over Pacific Lumber. In other words, US
taxpayer dollars may have already paid for Headwaters Forest.
Conservationists have worked tirelessly since Maxxam’s corporate raid
to halt the planned logging of the ancient forests of Headwaters by Maxxam.
A series of lawsuits by the Environmental Protection Information Center
(EPIC) and the Sierra Club have held off the destruction of this world
treasure. Efforts to bring the situation to the public eye have resulted
in strong support for the permanent protection of all 60,000 acres of Headwaters.
The popularity of the issue has also brought about support, including efforts
to protect the area through legislation, from members of the California
Congressional delegation. As feelings mounted and international public
support grew more vocal to protect the intact forest, the Clinton Administration
and California’s Senator Dianne Feinstein stepped in last fall to develop
a "deal" which provides a cancelable 10-month moratorium for
only 7500 acres of Headwaters Forest. Grassroots organizing efforts are
being undertaken in California and beyond, as well as media outreach and
public education about the issue and the opportunity to save the last of
this once-dominant ecosystem and its inhabitant wildlife species.
Goals and Objectives
Goal: Design a plan for an ecologically functioning reserve based
on principles and accepted theories of conservation biology which also
addresses local economic needs and long-term economic sustainability. Support
Affiliate groups with data produced in conjunction with this project. The
plan will evaluate the ecological status of the forest and inhabitant species
and prescribe needed treatment to restore impacted watersheds and provide
for species recovery such as the Coho Salmon. It aims to protect critically
important waterways and wild fish populations. From ecologically based
forestry and restoration prescriptions, it will project the economic impacts
of protecting the area by maintaining or improving local economic health
Objectives: Design a landscape management scenario/land use plan
that will protect all species and their current and future habitat using
the concepts of conservation biology. · Determine the nature and
magnitude of work required to restore Headwaters Forest ecosystem health
and eventually its ancient forest characteristics throughout the landscape.
· Determine the volume and rate of timber extraction consistent
with maintaining biodiversity and the Institute for Sustainable Forestry’s
Ten Elements of Sustainability©. · Analyze and forecast the
social and economic effects of varying rates of production of wood fiber
and other commodities. Examine impacts on, and potential for eco-tourism
and other alternative economic opportunities. · Analyze Pacific
Lumber actions and plans (e.g. Timber Harvest Plans [THPs], Sustained Yield
Plan [SYP], Habitat Conservation Plan [HCP]) to determine scientific credibility,
compliance with existing regulations, and environmental impacts.
Methodology: Of particular interest to the
conservation GIS community is the development and use of GIS technology
in the plan. Working in cooperation with a diverse cross-section of agencies,
scientists, and activists the Headwaters Forest Stewardship Plan GIS Team
has compiled a variety of data for use in project planning and analysis.
These include classified Landsat images for vegetation and forestry analysis,
hydrologic coverages for stream analysis, and data on species locations
and habitat requirements. We would like to share our experiences with others
interested in this type of GIS application while taking the opportunity
to provide information on Headwaters Forest and other Pacific Northwest
forest issues. The Headwaters Forest Stewardship Plan provides an excellent
example of many issues at the heart of the Conservation GIS Alliance: possibilities
for overcoming the jobs vs. environment dichotomy, combining science with
activism, and setting the stage for further citizen involvement in environmental
Collating Multidisciplinary Museum Specimen Data Using ArcView: The Modoc County
Project (1997 ESRI Paper, Tom Moritz, California Academy of Sciences
Golden Gate Park San Francisco, CA 94118, Telephone: 415-759-7101 Fax:
415-750-7106 E-mail: TMoritz@CAS.CalAcademy.org, George Chaplin ) . By
conservative estimate, the natural history museums of North America hold
over 400 million biological specimens. These collections represent the
largest raw data set depicting the world's biodiversity. The Modoc County
project sought to test the potential utility of these data by selecting
a relatively simple and manageable geographic region (Modoc County-northeastern
California), acquiring a number of available map layers and then inputting
specimen data for the County (derived from a variety of disciplinary and
institutional sources). The results of this effort are presented and evaluated
with implications for the general utility of museum specimen data.
Your Right to Know in the UK (1997 ESRI Paper, Susan Pipes, Friends of the Earth,
26-26 Underwood Street London, N1 7JQ UNITED KINGDOM, Telephone: 44-171-566-1637
Fax: 44-171-490-0881 E-mail: email@example.com) Defining Issue: Friends
of the Earth (FOE) has been using spatial analysis as a campaigning tool
for over six years. However, in order to maintain the integrity of our
GIS research we need to have better access to the United Kingdom government's
environmental information. Unlike in the United States there is no Freedom
of Information Act in the U.K. at present, and it is the aim of this paper
to chart the progress made by FOE and others in obtaining better access
to environmental information in the U.K. - our legal challenges, our winning
campaigns and our present battles. One Solution: The paper will give a
live Internet demonstration of the clear example, FOE has set for the U.K.
government in the provision of real access to environmental information.
FOE has published the government's own Chemical Release Inventory , a complex
database of chemical emissions recorded at U.K. factories, on the Internet
via a mapping interface. By entering their post code (or ZIP Code) the
user generates a map centered on their own home that identifies local factories.
These can then be clicked on to discover emission levels from each individual
factory. Voted the Best Non-Commerical Site by GIS World, FOE's version
of the Chemical Release Inventory has revolutionized access to this information.
In 1994/95 the U.K. government recorded 760 requests for this information.
In 1995/96 FOE responded to 25,000 requests for the same information.
Using ArcInfo to Evaluate Plan Biodiversity in Southern Siberia. (1997
ESRI paper: Roman R. Bukarev Novosibirk State University 20/2, Pirogov
Street Novosibirsk, 630090 RUSSIA Telephone: 011-383-2-397885 Fax: c/o
(406) 728-9432 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) . The Baraba Steppe is a southern
Siberian region with native physical and geographical conditions with close
coexistence of grassland, forest, steppe, and wetland plant communities.
Using PC ARC/INFO, we developed a GIS to provide the capability to operate
with large databases on southern Siberia ecosystems biodiversity. The main
objectives of the GIS are to answer users' inquiries of two types: (1)
evaluating a species' or a regime of species' spatial distribution within
a given site (species of plants and animals, associated communities, etc.)
and (2) obtaining data on the biodiversity of a given site (the species
list, the list of communities within their areas, the Red Book species
list, analytical maps, etc.) in order to evaluate the biodiversity of large
regions to configure and designate a protected areas network. Using topo
maps (1:25,000) and aerial photographs (1:14,000), the hypsometric, road,
vegetation, and hydrological layers were developed. These coverages were
then modified with field research surveys to include items such as plant
communities and abundance. The region analyzed was subdivided and an algorithm
was developed to evaluate the biodiversity indices for each site. The identified
sites of greatest vegetation biodiversity can be used in designation of
protected areas and be considered for human activity within Baraba.
Using ArcInfo to Identify and Promote Designation of Katun National Park, Altai
Region, Russia. (1997 ESRI paper: Alexander Yumakaev Socio-Ecological
Union/Altai PO 845 Barnaul, 656015 RUSSIA Telephone: 3852.22.0908 Fax:
406-728-9432 E-mail: email@example.com). SEU/Altai has developed a proposal
to create a national park in the Ust-Koksa region in the Altai Republic,
Russia, by expanding and changing the management regime of the Katun Nature
Preserve. This area, which is at the headwaters of the Katun River, was
chosen for potential national park designation because of its unique natural
and cultural features. Using PC ARC/INFO, SEU/Altai digitized and combined
geologic, vegetative, hydrographic, and cultural layers at a scale of 1:200,000
to gain an understanding of the natural resources and the human impacts
on nature in the area. This GIS information allowed us to create land use
designations for the proposed park and will aid in management of the future
park, as well as aid in the park designation process.
GIS Design for Regional Conservation Planning/Course Outline
(William L. Allen, The Conservation Fund, PO Box 271, Chapel Hill, NC 27514,
Telephone: 919-967-2223 Fax: 919-967-9702 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Cheryl Crupi).
The Conservation Fund has been asked by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's
National Education and Training Center (NETC) to help develop a land and water conservation
curriculum for the training, education, and leadership development of conservation
professionals in the nonprofit, government, and corporate sectors. The
Conservation Fund's GIS Program, Conservation GIS Solutions, has been asked
to coordinate the development of courses aimed at applying cutting-edge
conservation tools such as geographic information systems. Conservation
GIS Solutions is developing an outline for a course on designing regional
conservation planning projects using GIS as a tool to facilitate land use
decision making. The course will address issues related to conservation
GIS development (e.g., articulation of management objectives, user needs
assessment, and GIS partnership development) as well as those related to
GIS project design (project planning, data acquisition, development, and
documentation, and project implementation). The course will also include
case studies of successful conservation GIS projects that have utilized
GIS as a decision making tool. The Conservation Fund hopes that this course
will help conservation professionals from the nonprofit, government, and
corporate sectors develop partnerships to design successful regional conservation
planning projects using GIS as a decision support tool. After feedback
from the USFWS and other government agencies, ESRI user conference attendees,
corporate GIS users, and Land Trust Alliance members, we hope to offer
the inaugural course at the NETC in late 1997.