ESRI Conservation Program Resources:

Parks, Reserves & Protected Areas

(ECP operates a nationwide grant program to all US National Parks, which has helped take the service from just a few GIS-enabled parks at the start of the program to over 200 GIS-capable parks today (1999), and growing. Thanks to support from the NPS GIS office in Colorado and a national network of NPS technical coordinators, GIS applications in the parks have exploded in recent years, as the list of papers and online maps below will show. ECP also grants to state parks, and all other types of protected areas and reserves worldwide.

Sites of interest for mapping/GIS

(Legend: CTSP sites are coded "c" plus the year of the grant, (cs=software, cm=mac), ECP grantees are coded "e". Many groups, especially newer grantees, do not yet have their own sites and are colored green. Other new groups may be described or supported by other sites)

California State Parks Page, Ca . Text Lists of all parks, and web pages on several. (see also CERES state parks site .

George Wright Society, Mi . (The George Wright Society P.O. Box 65 Hancock, Michigan 49930-0065 USA Tel:906-487-9722 Fax: 906-487-9405 "The GWS is a nonprofit association of researchers, managers, administrators, educators, and other professionals who work on behalf of the scientific and heritage values of protected areas.".. Their Activities: "Publishing a quarterly journal (The George Wright Forum), Holding biennial conferences, Producing a variety of publications on park research and management issues, Providing references to Internet resources for professionals working in cultural and natural parks and protected areas, and Serving as a clearinghouse for inquiries. " Their Conference sections also include papers and abstracts on a wide variety of Park GIS topics.

Ice Age Park and Trail Foundation Wi e99 . (207 East Buffalo Street, Suite 515, Milwaukee, WI 53202-5712 tel:414-278-8518 or 800-227-0046 Fax:414-278-8665 NPS alternate site) ."We are the non-profit land trust (501c3) working to preserve the landscape of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail and the organization primarily responsible for the actual construction and maintenance of the Trail. Since 1958, our goal has been to build, maintain, protect and promote the 1,000+ mile Ice Age Trail in Wisconsin. We work closely with the National Park Service, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), local communities, businesses and over 2,600 volunteers." . Ice Age Park and Trail Foundation Map Buffet : "The Ice Age Trail Map Buffet is a web site that you can visit to create your very own customized Ice Age Trail maps. If you like a map with topographic information, all the public lands or open space, and dispersed camping areas, the Map Buffet is the place for you! " see also the ECP conf paper: "GIS Assists the Ice Age National Scenic Trail" .

Instituto Nacional de Parques, (Inparques), Venezuela e98 . (Apartado Postal 76.471, Caracas, Venezuela 1070 tel: 235-78-73 GIS Contact: Luiz Ramirez, LRAMIREZF@HOTMAIL.COM) see their MAP ." INPARQUES had no existing GIS capability, and in August 1997, requested the advice and guidance of the NPS on GIS implementation. Leslie Armstrong (WASO NRID National GIS Program Director) and David Best (GIS Coordinator, Redwood National Park) traveled to Venezuela between September 22 and September 30, 1997 to evaluate local need, existing capability, and available expertise. Here are some bits and pieces of their trip report:"

National Parks and Conservation Association, Dc .(National Parks and Conservation Association 1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 1-800-NAT-PARKS 202-223-6722 ) "America's only private, non-profit citizen organization dedicated solely to protecting, preserving, and enhancing the U.S. National Park System." see Park Activist Network "Become one of 40,000 NPCA Park Activists taking action on park issues across the country! Joining the network is FREE and you do not have to be an NPCA member" Example: Action Alerts: Big Cypress National Preserve "...This magnified copy of the North of Fifty Mile Bend trails, created from the original mapping data acquired by a Freedom Of Information Act (FOIA) request, shows the dense network of extremely numerous individual "trails" (the fine lines). "

National Park Service Parks List. National list for all parks. See also the PARK MAPS section for online park tourist maps: "National Park Service maps can be downloaded from this web site to your desktop computer."

New York-New Jersey Trail Conference, Ny, c98 . (232 Madison Avenue #802, New York, NY 10016 tel:(212) 685-9699 Fax:(212) 779-8102 Gis contact: Walter Daniels ) "The New York-New Jersey Trail Conference is a federation of more than 85 hiking and environmental organizations and 10,000 individuals dedicated to building and maintaining marked hiking trails and protecting related open space in the bi-state region. Our constituent clubs have a combined membership of over 100,000....The TC was founded in 1923 and has a long history of fighting for open space preservation, including the landmark Storm King Pumped Storage Project and more recently Sterling Forest. ...Many of the trails in the NY area are partly on private land or newly expanding state lands. There are two major trail systems being worked on, the Highlands Trail from the Hudson River to the Delaware River and the Long Path from the George Washington Bridge to north of the Catskills (eventually heading for the Adirondaks). Both of these projects involve extensive land negotiations, plotting tax maps and determining alternate routes. A GIS system will help us track this process better. Frequently, as in the case of the Sterling Forest negotiations, viewshed analysis of what is visible from where on proposed purchases is needed....The TC's current maps were all produced with old fashioned methods on mylar masters, but we need to be able to produce new maps and changes to the old maps using modern digital cartography." see also The New York Highlands GIS User's Group . see their Clickable Overview MAP . SEARCH .

NPS Cultural Resources Heritage Preservation Services . (National Center for Cultural Resources Stewardship & Partnership Programs, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, NW, NC330 Washington, D.C. 20240, Tel:(202) 343-9583 E-mail: "Heritage Preservation Services, National Park Service, helps our nation's citizens and communities identify, evaluate, protect and preserve historic properties for future generations of include State Historic Preservation Offices, local governments, tribes, federal agencies, colleges, and non-profit organizations...HPS USES THE LATEST IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES TO HELP ITS PROJECT PARTNERS CONDUCT RESEARCH AND PLAN FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC AND ARCHEOLOGICAL RESOURCES." PROGRAMS: The Historic Preservation Planning Program "provides guidance and technical assistance to states, tribes, local governments, and federal agencies as they plan for the preservation of their important historic resources.". .The Cultural Resources Diversity Initiative "is a long-term capital investment effort to place a greater number of individuals representing all the nation's cultural and ethnic groups in historic preservation/cultural resources practitioner and management jobs." . .The Tribal Preservation Program "works with Indian Tribes, Alaska Native Groups, and Native Hawaiians to preserve and protect resources and traditions that are of importance to Native Americans." . ..The Historic Landscape Initiative helps define and protect the nation's designed and vernacular landscapes by promoting responsible preservation practices." . .. Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS), (see main entry below)

NPS Cultural Resources Mapping & GIS Division (Cultural Resource Mapping Services, Heritage Preservation Services, National Park Service, 1849 C Street NW, NC330, Washington DC 20240 Contact: Kathleen Madigan at (202) 343-9516; fax (202) 343-3921 e-mail: ) CRGIS is "located within a unique facility in Washington, D.C., uses Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information Systems to create computer images and spatial data for historic maps, census records, and historic site inventories. In so doing, CRGIS helps its partners access, exchange, and distribute accurate information about the location, status, and condition of historic and archeological resources nationwide." Since 1990 the CRGIS has "assisted 20 National Park units, State Historic Preservation Offices, and Tribal Historic Preservation Offices in developing their GIS databases. " see: Mapping & Preservation Inventory Tool (MAPIT): "MAPIT is designed to organize historic resource inventories in a computerized database with sophisticated mapping capabilities, and combines information about where historic properties are located with information about how these properties look."(see under ECP Software/Methods page) Don't miss their "GIS PAPERS & REPORTS" . Current National GIS Projects: Civil War Battlefields in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia . Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park . National Historic Landmark, Geographic Information System Program , see also: Examples of GIS Applications in the NPS ..

NPS National GIS Program: ( P.O. Box 25287, Denver, CO 80225-0287 Phone: (303) 969-2964 Fax: (303) 969-2822 Contact: Leslie Armstrong, National Park Service National GIS Coordinator, EMail: ) "As recently as 1987, there were only four national parks with operational GIS's. Currently there are about 200 and it is expected that over the next 5 years there will be many more parks utilizing GIS technology to manage park resources. The GIS Program is aimed at implementing GIS in the parks and institutionalizing the use of GIS throughout the Service for planning, cultural and natural resource management, scientific research, interpretation and other management functions." NPS National GIS Contacts and support centers . . . Available GIS data and Metadata from the NPS : This data is free of charge, in ArcInfo, ArcView and Atlas formats, including Park Boundaries . See also Regional Data Sets for regional and park-specific data. . Don't Miss: Applications of GIS in the National Park Service, (see paper entries below) including: Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve . Lake Mead NRA . Mammoth Cave Groundwater Basin . National Parks to be Photographed from the Space Shuttle: "The National Park Service (NPS) will utilize the space shuttle photography to fill the data gap between aerial photography and satellite imagery. Data will be extracted through image processing and visual photo interpretation to gain knowledge about trends and changes in the natural resources of national parks and related ecosystems. " the USGS Speclab is using Imaging Spectroscopy to map park vegetation and ecosystems at several parks, including: Arches and Canyonlands, Dinosaur National Monument, Joshua Tree, Organ Pipe Cactus, Petrified Forest, Yellowstone, Rocky Mountain National Park . Don't Miss the National NPS GIS Newsletters, for interesting stories, profiles and technical tips . SEARCH page .

NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, (Natural Resource Information Division, 1201 Oak Ridge Drive, Suite 350 Fort Collins, Colorado 80525-5589, Dr. Gary L. Williams, Manager Inventory and Monitoring Program 970-225-3539 Natural Resource Inventories, Long Term Ecological Monitoring (LTEM) Program .PROGRAM AREAS: Bibliographic Database (an online searchable database on Parks Science) , Species Lists, Vegetation Maps, Vegetation Mapping Program, Base Cartography, Soils and Geology Maps, Species Survey and Distribution, Water Resources and Chemistry, Air Quality and Meteorology . Soils Mapping: "An additional partnership with the American Association of State Geologists (AASG) is gathering information from the files of state agencies and compiling an automated database on geologic and water resource maps, documents, specimen collections, and related information." Long Term Ecological Monitoring Program: see clickable map of Prototype LTEM parks . Draft Data Management Protocol . Annual Reports and other publications .

NPS-USGS National Vegetation Mapping Program . The USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program classifies and maps the vegetation communities of National Parks that have a natural resource component. The Program is managed by the USGS Center for Biological Informatics in cooperation with the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program. see STATUS PAGE . See: INTERIOR INITIATES FIRST-EVER STANDARDIZED MAPPING OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN NATIONAL PARKS "The National Park Service (NPS) and the National Biological Survey (NBS) will undertake the comprehensive inventory and mapping program with the contractual support of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI): The Nature Conservancy (TNC), a private, non-profit organization; the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), a National Science Foundation- initiated consortium of university "centers of excellence;" and others. " Don't Miss: THE NATIONAL VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION STANDARD .

NPS Nature Net: NPS Park Ecological and Resources News/Data . Air, Geology, Water, Plants & Animals: Data, Natural Resource Publications & NPS Resources Partnership Agreements.

NPS Banedlier National Monument e95 . (Headquarters: Bandelier National Monument HCR 1, Box 1, Suite 15 Los Alamos, NM 87544 tel: (505) 672-0343) . On the canyon-slashed slopes and bottoms of the Pajarito Plateau are the ruins of many cliff houses and pueblo style dwellings of 13th-century Pueblo Indians. Acreage: 32,737, all federal. Wilderness area: 23,267. (Craig Allen, 505-672-3861 Ext. 541 USGS-Biological Resources Division Jemez Mountains Field Station HCR1, Box 1, Suite 15 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 ) .

NPS Capitol Reef National Park, UT e97 . (Capitol Reef National Park HC 70 Box 15 Torrey, Utah 84775 tel:(435)425-3791 GIS contact: Jennifer Norton " A Geographic Information System (GIS) was initiated for Capitol Reef in 1982 originally to assess the effects of livestock grazing on park lands as directed by Congress. The focus of the GIS has since greatly expanded from strictly grazing issues to encompass the management and preservation of all of the park's natural resources as well as cultural resources from both prehistoric and historic times. A fully developed and operational GIS has greatly enhanced inventory and monitoring of park resources. The GIS database is repeatedly queried to provide necessary statistics and illustrations for park management decisions, compliance activities, reports, and researchers. "

NPS Colonial National Historical Park, Va e97 . (Colonial National Historical Park, P.O. Box 210,Yorktown, Virginia 23690-0210) GIS PROGRAM: "With GIS and Global Positioning Unit (GPS) technology we can place the Green Spring Plantation within a geographic world and historic landscape that existed in the 18th century.

NPS Golden Gate National Recreation Area, CA, e98 . (Fort Mason, Building 201 San Francisco, CA 94123 tel:(415) 556-0560 GIS contact: Stephen Skartvedt ) GIS RESEARCH: "Several hundred sampling sites have been studied over the past ten years in the Marin Headlands section of the park. Monitoring information includes vegetation type and animal capture information (mostly deer mice and other small rodents). This information combined with a multi-year radio collar tracking database of bobcat will be used to determine habitat suitability and density distribution of bobcat in the Marin Headlands. The USGS-BRD center in Alaska has developed an extension to Spatial Analyst that provides home range modeling, path analysis and habitat selection tools (contact We hope to use this extension with the modeling capabilities of Spatial Analyst to discover patterns of movement and distribution of bobcat in the Marin Headlands. 2.) A multi-agency collaboration (National Park Service, California State Parks, Marin Municipal Water District, Green Gulch Farms & the Muir Beach Community) has been established to protect the resources of the Redwood Creek watershed. This 71/2 square mile watershed contains several special status species including the Northern Spotted Owl, Red Legged Frog and Coho Salmon. It is also home to Muir Woods National Monument, a 300 acre old growth forest preserve. Baseline data and hydrolgic modeling needs to be done in the watershed to determine erosion potential, sedimentation rates and flow characteristics of Redwood Creek. The multi-agency collaboration dovetails with a joint Pt Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreation Area three year Coho Salmon/Steelhead Trout study. We hope to use the hydrology extensions in Spatial Analyst to help with the Redwood Creek watershed protection plan and Coho/Steelhead research." See also Presidio Vegetation Management Plan and MAP .

NPS Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hi e98: (P.O. Box 52 Hawaii National Park, HI 96718-0052 tel:(808) 985-6000 GIS contact: Melia Lane-Kamahele, 300 Ala Moana Blvd, Honolulu, HI, 96850, info below is from Bill Slocumb ( )" GIS Projects: Mapping rare and endangered plants and invertebrates in the Park. "These data are then overlaid with maps of vegetation, lava flows, and climate to provide information on habitat requirements. Selecting all areas that meet specified criteria then generates potential distribution maps of selected species. - Fire History Atlas: documents the history of fire occurrence from the early 1920's to 1996. A database providing information on the name, date, and cause of the fires will be linked to digitized maps. - Vegetation and fuels map:. Digitized vegetation maps will be used to develop detailed fuel maps, which will serve as valuable aids in planning fire suppression strategies. - Cataloging and geocoding herbarium specimens: Collection specimens will be cataloged and records of alien and rare plants will be geocoded and used to generate maps of all alien and rare plants collected and stored in the Park herbarium. "

NPS Joshua Tree National Park, Ca e97. . (74485 National Park Drive, 29 Palms, CA 92277 tel:760-367-5500 Fax: 760-367-6392 GIS Contact: Gillian Bowser) See Tortoise Landscapes - A Habitat Suitability Model for the Threatened Desert Tortoise (1998 ESRI Conf Abstract by Gillian Bowser Michael Rock , Brent Long ) "The desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizzi, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Joshua Tree National Monument, an 800,000-acre park in the California desert, designed a GIS model using known tortoise locations and environmental parameters (measured both in the field and from digital data). The model creates a layer that represents tortoiseness - a grid of cells with values of tortoise preferences. This layer is then used to assign values (using coefficients from logistic regression) to a surface that represents areas of predicted tortoise preference. Field work was based on validating the model by comparing observed values (field data) to predicted values from the model. Management implications and uses are discussed. "

NPS Lava Beds National Monument, Ca e97 . (Bill Slocumb ( ) GIS Projects: "Alien plant infestation areas determined with GPS and associated with information describing species, treatment, effect of treatment, etc. - Archeological site mapping with a GPS. - Precipitation contours generated from data points of monthly precipitation (from small portable rain gauges in remote locations) using Spatial Analyst software. - Trail planning using a GPS and Spatial Analyst software to generate custom, detailed contour maps of potential trail routes and to create a surface elevation grid for slope and watershed analysis. - Visitor information - create custom maps for export into document files for brochures, handouts, etc. "

NPS: Point Reyes National Seashore, Ca e96 .(Point Reyes Station, CA 94956-9799 Tel:(415) 663-1092 fax (415) 663-8132 GIS Contact: David W. Schirokauer Nearly 20% of the State's flowering plant species are represented on the peninsula and over 45% of the bird species in North America have been sighted." GIS PROGRAM: "current major projects include: vegetation mapping and accuracy assessment of the vegetation map being produced by ESRI, designing and mapping marine refugia, mapping the distribution of exotic vegetation, mapping the distribution of rare and endangered plants, mapping the locations of endangered bird's (Snowy Plover, Northern Spotted Owls) nest sites, mapping the parks infrastructure.". ..GIS & Fire at Point Reyes National Seashore : "In the fall of 1995, a wildfire occurred on the at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, and during this emergency, GIS/GPS was utilized to monitor the daily spread of the fire, measure fire suppression actions, and to assess damage to structures and to natural and cultural resources."See: Interactive Application of GIS During the Vision Wildfire paper.. see also: Interactive Application of GIS at Point Reyes National Seashore .

NPS Sequoia and King's Canyon National Parks, Ca e94 . (Sequoia and King's Canyon National Parks, 47050 Generals Highway, Three Rivers, CA 93271-9651 tel(559) 565-3341, GIS Contact: Pat Lineback . "Sequoia is the second oldest national park in the United States. It was established in 1890 to protect the Big Trees in Giant Forest, including the General Sherman Tree , the world's largest living thing. . Park Museum Collection Profile . Sequoia Natural History Association . Nature Center .. GIS PROGRAM STATUS: Since the initial grant in 1994, GIS has slowly become 'institutionalized' in the park, with dozens of users in all departments. "GIS was among the tools used in planning the phased removal of cabins and other structures from the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park, California...The GIS application developed at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, can answer many important fire management questions. This map shows where fire should be restored (darker areas) based on greatest ecological need. Most of these areas are in the mixed-conifer forest and often coincide with heavily used areas of the parks. " Don't miss Wild or Prescribed: Two Kinds of Fire . GIS DATA DOWNLOAD page, including Fire History, Fire Classifications, Park Boundaries . NEW clickable Map

NPS Voyageurs National Park, Mn e97 . (Voyageurs National Park 3131 Highway 53 International Falls, MN 56649-8904 tel:(218) 283-9821 fax:(218) 285-7407 GIS contact: Sam Lammie, Email: ) GIS program began in 1989 with GRASS, adding PC ARC/INFO in 1992. Program has now expanded to 30+ networked NT machines running ArcView and ArcInfo for a wide variety of park staff. GIS Research Projects: "Testing of the Habitat Suitability Index Models: Moose, Lake Superior Region - A Geographic Information Systems Approach: This project uses GIS to evaluate two recently developed habitat suitability index (HSI) models for moose. Specific objectives are: Develop a GIS database for Voyageurs National Park, . Develop a model to predict forest understory based on the GIS database..." don't miss the MAP DOWNLOAD section .

NPS Yellowstone National Park Spatial Analysis Center, Ca e98 . (P.O. Box 168 Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190-0168 tel:(307)344-7381 . GIS Contact: Eric Compas, Jessica Baker), "The Spatial Analysis Center uses computerized geographic information to track cultural and natural resources, detect trends over time, and model ecological processes. The key to this technology is the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) software...The center has currently completed a soil survey and a landform layer. Potential future projects include a spatial geothermal inventory and a model of blister rust infestation in whitebark pine. " Available GIS Data Sets . Don't Miss: Example GIS projects and Sample Maps .

NPS Yosemite National Park e91 . (P.O. Box 577 Yosemite, CA 95389 Tel:(209) tel:372-0200 Gis Contact: Joe Meyer "Yosemite National Park embraces almost 1,200 square miles of scenic wild lands set aside in 1890 to preserve a portion of the central Sierra Nevada that stretches along California's eastern flank" GIS PROGRAM: "Yosemite National Park has a very active GIS program, with data development dating back to the late-1970s resulting in a rich (but never complete) dataset and a wealth of GIS applications. The GIS program is organizationally located within the Division of Resource Management, which is charged with management and protection of the park's natural and cultural resources, but is not the sole user of GIS. We are particularly active in fire management, using FARSITE to model fire spread, and using GIS in general to support fire management. We are currently partnering with ESRI (via contract) to develop a vegetation map for the park and immediate environs through the service-wide Inventory and Monitoring program. We are in the midst of a major planning effort, the Yosemite Valley Plan, and are using GIS data and analyses to guide decisions. In general, we are trying to infuse GIS into every aspect of the operation of Yosemite National Park. ". Yosemite Association collects millions in private donations to help the work of the park, and offers news, seminars, books, and Virtual Yosemite, complete with a live webcam and views. the Draft Yosemite Valley Plan is a new comprehensive general plan for the park being created using GIS. See for instance: High Value Resources Map .

The National Park Trust, Dc . (415-2nd Street, N.E. Suite 210, Washington, DC 20002 tel:(202) 548-0500 Fax: (202) 548-0595 "The Trust is the only land conservancy dedicated exclusively to preserving and protecting America's national parks....Thus far we have protected nearly 20,000 acres of land for the benefit of future generations of national park visitors." they protect hundreds of acres thru outright purchase, and negotiate funding, exchanges and grants with other partners over thousands of acres nationwide.

Rails to Trails Conservancy, Dc c99 . (National Headquarters 1100 17th Street, NW, 10th Floor Washington, D.C. 20036 Phone: 202-331-9696 Fax: 202-331-9680 . GIS Contact: Hugh Morris, ) ."Rails-to-Trails Conservancy was founded in 1986 with the primary mission of converting abandoned rail corridors into trails for recreation and non-motorized transportation. After twelve years, we have a staff of 40, 5 field offices, 80,000 members, and are able to document 1,000 such rail-trails in 49 states totaling over 10,000 miles of trail. RTC started using GIS in 1996 when Hugh Morris became the Research Director. At that time, ESRI provided a copy of ArcView 3.0 which we are still using. We have used GIS for a variety of tasks including mapping of our membership, our 10,000 activists, disbursement of trails by county, and some of the trails themselves, including the most likely coast-to-coast route. One of the primary activities of the Program department of RTC is to provide technical assistance to local trail organizations that are trying to establish a trail in their community. This activity requires significant public outreach at community meetings. GIS is the perfect tool for showing how a particular trail, particularly those in urban areas, will impact the community. With GIS, we have shown the range of community assets that will be connected by the trails such as schools, libraries, parks, etc. We have also imported Census data to show how many people will live within a mile of the trail (this is the typical maximum distance that a person will travel to a trail to use it to get to work or school) and are working on methods to predict commute trips on the trail. This last effort we are working on in collaboration with the Bicycle Federation of America (a 1998 CTSP grantee) as well as with local non-profits that are advocating for trails in their area. For example, in the Washington D.C. region, we have shown that nearly all the trails that have been built to date have been in the primarily Caucasian, wealthier parts of the city and used this documentation to build support for a trail in a part of town that has been left without such resources....We are now embarking on a project to make information about these trails accessible on our web site. We have been using ArcView GIS for 2+ years mapping the trails in point and line layers and would like to make this available to trail users and advocates around the country using the IMS. ". .See: U.S. Trail Information Center, a public service of Rails-to-Trails Conservancy. The Center includes information on 700 rail-trails around the United States."


Scholarly papers and ESRI Conference Proceedings

An Example of GIS Applications in Public Policy Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site Management Zoning Scheme As Defined in the Site’s General Management Plan () "..Areas with historic resource values related to the battle of Palo Alto were identified through research of historic maps and brought into the geographic information system. The different stages of the battle were mapped and then superimposed on one another to establish areas with historic resource values. Identifying the viewshed from the high historic value area was accomplished by selecting a set of random sample points, then creating an elevation model based on a digital elevation model with consideration of vegetation height. Finally, a viewshed was created using the model, which resides in the GRID module of ArcInfo GIS software. The resulting viewshed represents views from multiple points within the high historic value area... "

Applications of GIS Analysis for Natural Resource Management at the National Biological Service's Southern Science Center (1995 Paper, James B. Johnston, Marcia E. McNiff, William R. Jones, Wei Ji, Lawrence R. Handley, John Barras, and Pierre Bourgeois) ...The SSC develops databases and provides support for a wide variety of spatial analysis projects for numerous Federal, state, local, and private entities using ArcInfo GIS software...SSC's support for this project includes planning and monitoring restoration projects and co-chairing the wetlands monitoring Technical Advisory Group. Support for other projects includes providing data to assess Hurricane Andrew damage to Louisiana's natural resources, assisting in the development of GIS capabilities and digital databases for resource management personnel, and providing GIS and data management support to monitor the status and trends of wetlands in the Gulf of Mexico area.

Approaching the Virtual Landscape of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating Spatial Analysis with the Process of Scientific Discovery to Create a Soils Resource Inventory (1996 Abstract, Henry Shovick, Ann Rodman, and Eric Compas)...The two million pristine acres of Yellowstone National Park are the backdrop for an unusual and ground breaking effort. We are building an integrated landscape model, based on digital spatial data and the concepts of the science of landscape ecology. We recently completed the last major resource theme for this model....Because of limited accessibility, availability of a wealth of digital biologic and physical information, and need for a strong scientific basis we chose to replace the entire delineation process with electronic methods of spatial analysis.

The Computer Automation of Land Status within the National Wildlife Refuges of Alaska (1995 Paper, Douglas L. Vandegraft)...Beginning in August 1989, the Division has been digitizing all of the small parcels (down to .001 acre) within townships inside refuge boundaries. Using Master Title Plats, which are produced manually by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), land status has been "automated" within 8 of the 16 refuges thus far. This report was written to document and detail the processes necessary to automate land status on a township level. The evolution of refuge mapping that led to Realty's land status GIS is documented in the Appendix.

Enhancing Natural and Cultural Resources Management by Integrating GIS Capabilities with Park Operations (1996 Paper, Anthony Gareau)...To effectively manage park resources, managers need accurate information to recognize changes in ecosystems and to link trends with causes so that natural and anthropogenic threats may be distinguished....In this paper, we demonstrate the functions of a user-friendly computer interface being developed for CVNRA to make access to information timely and easier for managers, researchers, staff, and visitors. The interface consolidates a vast amount of existing natural and cultural resources digital data into a single system supporting park operations in CVNRA.

Geographic Information System Approach to Trails Management in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. (Dan Hurlbert, GIS Specialist) "The park’s GIS assisted with trails damage assessment following two significant events; Hurricane Fran in September, 1996 and a major ice storm in January, 1998...Feature data collection using satellite-mapping technology (GPS), students hiked and mapped each trail and associated trail features including 463 sections along 331 miles of trail (534 km). Also mapped were 152 culverts, 71 retaining walls and 18 bridges. Other information gathered included low-water stream crossings, trail intersections and numbers of water control features (WCF). Water control is important, especially along trails. Often, a trail will act as a conduit for water during storm events of the type mentioned. Channels result as erosion carries the structural integrity of the trail bed down slope. Water control features such as checkdams, waterbars and culverts are important impediments to this process. "

GIS and a New National Park: The Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar (1995 Abstract, Andrew D. Weiss, Claire Kremen) ...TOPOGRID (Arc v.7) converted the vector hypsography to a 100m DEM, which was used to derive slope, aspect, insolation, and topographic position (ridge, slope, valley, flat). Forest cover in 1957 and 1991 was determined by interpreting aerial photography and SPOT imagery, giving us the opportunity for evaluating land use changes. Global positioning systems were used by survey teams recording both biological and socioeconomic data such as village age and population.

GIS Solutions Creating and Managing Metadata in an ArcView GIS Environment (by Peter Budde, MWSO-GIS) "The metadata challenge is consistent for every type of GIS configuration. Perhaps, however, the typical small-park setting faces the greatest number of obstacles: only one person is familiar with the GIS data and software operation; the GIS responsibilities are one of many collateral duties; there is frequent turnover in this position; and by the way, lack of time. Yet with the increasing capabilities of desktop GIS, e.g., ArcView, many more parks are integrating spatial information and tools in their routine operations, and we are all capable of creating data with much less angst...One possible tool our small-park GIS offices could use is called the Metadata Management System (MMS). MMS provides a framework for documenting each layer in the GIS and maintains the information in an Access database format. The greatest strength of MMS is its seamless integration with ArcView 3.0x GIS, an interface to the metadata is provided via an ArcView extension. "

Georeferencing Field Data with only 2 GPS points: (Colonial National Historical Park, P.O. Box 210,Yorktown, Virginia 23690-0210) "Normally hardcopy maps are digitized with a minimum of four geo-referenced points. But the park had only two geo-referenced points that could be found on the ground and correlated with the Caywood map. The following procedure, using ArcInfo and ArcView, gives an additional option for referencing digitized maps with less than four points...The archaeological and historic maps of Green Spring were digitized using ArcView 3.0 as line themes (shapefiles). " The SHAPEARC command was used to create an ArcInfo coverage from the shapefile, followed by BUILD and CLEAN then ARCDXF to make a .dxf format file which is opened up in ArcView. The .wld "world" file can then be created by hand by entering the 2 known GPS coordinates using any text editor.

Interactive Application of GIS During the Vision Wildfire At Point Reyes National Seashore (1996 ESRI Conf. Paper, Sarah G. Allen, Ph.D.; David Kehrlein; David Shreve; and Richard Krause) (see under ECP Fire section)

Landscape and Fire Ecology Studies at Bandelier National Monument and the Jemez Mountains (by Craig Allen, 505-672-3861 Ext. 541, USGS-Biological Resources Division, Jemez Mountains Field Station, HCR1, Box 1, Suite 15 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544. ) "This project involves reconstruction of environmental histories and determination of the landscape-level ecological effects of fire in the Jemez and other southwestern mountains, including follow-up studies within Bandelier on the 1977 La Mesa Fire and the park's ongoing prescribed burn program. Studies include assessment of tree growth, nitrogen-cycle/fire interactions, and wildlife implications (spotted owl occupancy and reproductive success as a function of landscape-scale fire history)."

Landscape Changes in the Southwestern United States: Techniques, Long-term Data Sets, and Trends (by Craig D. Allen U.S. Geological Survey Midcontinent Ecological Science Center Jemez Mountains Field Station Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 505/672-3861 ext. 541 Julio L. Betancourt U.S. Geological Survey Desert Laboratory Tucson, Arizona 85745 520/670-6821 ext. 112 Thomas W. Swetnam Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 520/621-2112 "The great ecological diversity of landscapes in the American Southwest results from combinations of the underlying patterns of topographic complexity, climatic variability, and environmental histories. This chapter illustrates some high-resolution and long-term data sets and approaches for reconstructing landscape change in the Southwest, including the paleobotanical record, repeat photography, and fire-scar histories from tree rings. We explore the effectiveness of collecting historical data at multiple locations to build networks that allow analyses to be scaled up from localities to regions and the use of historical data to discriminate between natural and cultural causes of environmental change. "

Long-term Ecological Monitoring and Ecosystem Studies at Bandelier National Monument and the Jemez Mountains (by Craig Allen, 505-672-3861 Ext. 541, USGS-Biological Resources Division, Jemez Mountains Field Station, HCR1, Box 1, Suite 15 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544. ) "This study involves an array of research and monitoring work on ecosystem function in the Jemez Mountains, with particular focus on processes within Bandelier National Monument. Work involves determining ecological conditions and revegetation techniques in pinon-juniper woodlands within Bandelier, employing erosion bridges, vegetation line transects, burro exclosures, arthropod pitfall traps, and photo stations."

Making GIS Work in a Desert Park (1996 Paper, T.N. Potter, D.P. Guertin, M.R. Kunzmann, and J. Barnett)...Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona was established in 1937 to preserve the unique vegetation and animal communities of the Sonoran Desert....This paper will review the importance of cooperative partnerships in making the ORPI GIS program a success. The paper will also examine the program's brief history, a few GIS applications, and discuss the implementation process.

Monitoring Natural Resources in our National Parks (contact: Steven Fancy, Monitoring Specialist, "This web page is a compilation of information from a number of sources that may be useful to parks for designing and implementing long-term monitoring of natural resources. The intent is to make it easier for park personnel to obtain information provided by the prototype monitoring parks and other agencies and individuals." Sections include: Differences Between Monitoring and Research, DESIGNING A MONITORING PROGRAM, Sampling Design Considerations: Where and When to Sample .

Restoration of Bighorn Sheep Metapopulations In and Near 15 National Parks: Conservation of a Severely Fragmented Species (Singer, F.J., and M.A. Gudorf. 1999. Restoration of Bighorn Sheep Metapopulations In and Near 15 National Parks: Conservation of a Severely Fragmented Species. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 99-102, Midcontinent Ecological Sciences Center, Fort Collins, Colorado. 96pp. ) "The observation of bighorn sheep in their natural settings in the canyons, slick rock, badlands and rocky ledges of the national parks of the Intermountain Region stir the imaginations of the U.S. public. The restoration of this decimated and fragmented species to its former vast range in the parks has been a formidable task that is being undertaken by the National Park Service and U.S. Geological Survey. "

Using GIS For General Management Planning at the Gettysburg National Military Park (Curtis Musselman Historian GIS Specialist Resource Management Division Gettysburg National Military Park United States of America) " GIS tools are being used by the National Park Service (NPS) at the Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP) to support the creation of a new General Management Plan (GMP)...The entry to the GIS of locations for historic resources such as earthworks, fences, woods, orchards, avenues, lanes and monuments has made possible the creation of series of maps with a variety of scales and content. For analysis purposes, the park was broken into ten zones based on the interpretive theme most important in each area. Overlays of historic features from four eras provided a zone by zone analysis of the amount of change in the historic landscape based on the total acreage or linear feet of the mapped historic features....A comparison of the 1863 and 1996 conditions maps shows clearly that today we have far fewer fences and orchards on the battlefield and nearly twice as much woods as in 1863. Since the differences in the amount of features on the battlefield as a whole is so great, the park was mapped into 10 interpretive zones so that we could understand for each of these how much effort would be required to restore the historic scene...."

Using GIS and Remote Sensing for Wildland Fire Management in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area () "The fire history database for the region was assembled by digitizing hundreds of 1:24,000 scale USGS quadrangles on which all fires from 1925 to the present and at least 100 acres in size had been manually recorded by the Los Angeles and Ventura County fire departments....The park inherited a 1930s vegetation map done by the United States Forest Service (USFS) as part of statewide forestry mapping effort done during the Great Depression. The dubious planimetric quality of this map is evident when compared to maps of the region completed under more stringent positional accuracy requirements. A more recent vegetation dataset was created by Janet Franklin at San Diego State University, in cooperation with the National Park Service, using spring 1993 TM satellite imagery and aerial orthophoto quadrangles (see Figure 3). The classification employed was a hybrid-Holland vegetation scheme, which park fire managers were then able to crosswalk to the standard thirteen National Forest Fire Laboratory (NFFL) fuel models (see Figure 4). Currently, the park is involved in a cooperative effort with NASA, University of California at Santa Barabara, University of California at Davis, and the USFS aimed at using hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy and collateral GIS information to develop a species level vegetation map and fuel load database (discussed below)...In conjunction with the improved fuel models being developed by NASA, UCSB, USFS, and the NPS a parallel effort aimed at improving fire behavior prediction is also afoot in the Santa Monica Mountains. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing an atmospheric feedback fire model for use in shrub fires. Unlike previous fire behavior models, the feedback models are able to account for the contribution of localized advective and radiant heat energy on meterological conditions seen along the fire line. "

Watershed Restoration in Degraded Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands by Craig Allen and Brian Jacobs (NPS) "A paired watershed approach (treatment and control, ca. 40 hectares each) is being conducted to evaluate a promising restoration methodology based on prior, successful small scale experimental results involving establishment of native grasses from seed through reduction of tree densities, slash and straw mulch applications, and fertilization. "


All text by the respective organizations/authors, January 2, 1997

Web layout & design: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. January 2, 1996

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